17.14 Addressing Modes
— Macro: HAVE_PRE_DECREMENT
— Macro: HAVE_POST_INCREMENT
— Macro: HAVE_POST_DECREMENT
A C expression that is nonzero if the machine supports pre-increment, pre-decrement, post-increment, or post-decrement addressing respectively.
— Macro: HAVE_POST_MODIFY_DISP
A C expression that is nonzero if the machine supports pre- or post-address side-effect generation involving constants other than the size of the memory operand.
— Macro: HAVE_POST_MODIFY_REG
A C expression that is nonzero if the machine supports pre- or post-address side-effect generation involving a register displacement.
A C expression that is 1 if the RTX x is a constant which is a valid address. On most machines, this can be defined as
), but a few machines are more restrictive in which constant addresses are supported.
CONSTANT_P, which is defined by target-independent code, accepts integer-values expressions whose values are not explicitly known, such as
constarithmetic expressions, in addition to
A number, the maximum number of registers that can appear in a valid memory address. Note that it is up to you to specify a value equal to the maximum number that
GO_IF_LEGITIMATE_ADDRESSwould ever accept.
A C compound statement with a conditional
;executed if x (an RTX) is a legitimate memory address on the target machine for a memory operand of mode mode.
It usually pays to define several simpler macros to serve as subroutines for this one. Otherwise it may be too complicated to understand.
This macro must exist in two variants: a strict variant and a non-strict one. The strict variant is used in the reload pass. It must be defined so that any pseudo-register that has not been allocated a hard register is considered a memory reference. In contexts where some kind of register is required, a pseudo-register with no hard register must be rejected.
The non-strict variant is used in other passes. It must be defined to accept all pseudo-registers in every context where some kind of register is required.
Compiler source files that want to use the strict variant of this macro define the macro
REG_OK_STRICT. You should use an
#ifdef REG_OK_STRICTconditional to define the strict variant in that case and the non-strict variant otherwise.
Subroutines to check for acceptable registers for various purposes (one for base registers, one for index registers, and so on) are typically among the subroutines used to define
GO_IF_LEGITIMATE_ADDRESS. Then only these subroutine macros need have two variants; the higher levels of macros may be the same whether strict or not.
Normally, constant addresses which are the sum of a
symbol_refand an integer are stored inside a
constRTX to mark them as constant. Therefore, there is no need to recognize such sums specifically as legitimate addresses. Normally you would simply recognize any
PRINT_OPERAND_ADDRESSis not prepared to handle constant sums that are not marked with
const. It assumes that a naked
plusindicates indexing. If so, then you must reject such naked constant sums as illegitimate addresses, so that none of them will be given to
On some machines, whether a symbolic address is legitimate depends on the section that the address refers to. On these machines, define the target hook
TARGET_ENCODE_SECTION_INFOto store the information into the
symbol_ref, and then check for it here. When you see a
const, you will have to look inside it to find the
symbol_refin order to determine the section. See Assembler Format.
A single character to be used instead of the default
'm'character for general memory addresses. This defines the constraint letter which matches the memory addresses accepted by
GO_IF_LEGITIMATE_ADDRESS_P. Define this macro if you want to support new address formats in your back end without changing the semantics of the
'm'constraint. This is necessary in order to preserve functionality of inline assembly constructs using the
A C expression to determine the base term of address x, or to provide a simplified version of x from which alias.c can easily find the base term. This macro is used in only two places:
It is always safe for this macro to not be defined. It exists so that alias analysis can understand machine-dependent addresses.
The typical use of this macro is to handle addresses containing a label_ref or symbol_ref within an UNSPEC.
A C compound statement that attempts to replace x with a valid memory address for an operand of mode mode. win will be a C statement label elsewhere in the code; the macro definition may useGO_IF_LEGITIMATE_ADDRESS (mode, x, win);
to avoid further processing if the address has become legitimate.
The code generated by this macro should not alter the substructure of x. If it transforms x into a more legitimate form, it should assign x (which will always be a C variable) a new value.
It is not necessary for this macro to come up with a legitimate address. The compiler has standard ways of doing so in all cases. In fact, it is safe to omit this macro. But often a machine-dependent strategy can generate better code.
A C compound statement that attempts to replace x, which is an address that needs reloading, with a valid memory address for an operand of mode mode. win will be a C statement label elsewhere in the code. It is not necessary to define this macro, but it might be useful for performance reasons.
For example, on the i386, it is sometimes possible to use a single reload register instead of two by reloading a sum of two pseudo registers into a register. On the other hand, for number of RISC processors offsets are limited so that often an intermediate address needs to be generated in order to address a stack slot. By defining
LEGITIMIZE_RELOAD_ADDRESSappropriately, the intermediate addresses generated for adjacent some stack slots can be made identical, and thus be shared.
Note: This macro should be used with caution. It is necessary to know something of how reload works in order to effectively use this, and it is quite easy to produce macros that build in too much knowledge of reload internals.
Note: This macro must be able to reload an address created by a previous invocation of this macro. If it fails to handle such addresses then the compiler may generate incorrect code or abort.
The code generated by this macro must not alter the substructure of x. If it transforms x into a more legitimate form, it should assign x (which will always be a C variable) a new value. This also applies to parts that you change indirectly by calling
If you want to change only a part of x, one standard way of doing this is to use
copy_rtx. Note, however, that it unshares only a single level of rtl. Thus, if the part to be changed is not at the top level, you'll need to replace first the top level. It is not necessary for this macro to come up with a legitimate address; but often a machine-dependent strategy can generate better code.
A C statement or compound statement with a conditional
;executed if memory address x (an RTX) can have different meanings depending on the machine mode of the memory reference it is used for or if the address is valid for some modes but not others.
Autoincrement and autodecrement addresses typically have mode-dependent effects because the amount of the increment or decrement is the size of the operand being addressed. Some machines have other mode-dependent addresses. Many RISC machines have no mode-dependent addresses.
You may assume that addr is a valid address for the machine.
A C expression that is nonzero if x is a legitimate constant for an immediate operand on the target machine. You can assume that x satisfies
CONSTANT_P, so you need not check this. In fact, 1 is a suitable definition for this macro on machines where anything
This hook is used to undo the possibly obfuscating effects of the
LEGITIMIZE_RELOAD_ADDRESStarget macros. Some backend implementations of these macros wrap symbol references inside an
UNSPECrtx to represent PIC or similar addressing modes. This target hook allows GCC's optimizers to understand the semantics of these opaque
UNSPECs by converting them back into their original form.
This hook should return true if x is of a form that cannot (or should not) be spilled to the constant pool. The default version of this hook returns false.
The primary reason to define this hook is to prevent reload from deciding that a non-legitimate constant would be better reloaded from the constant pool instead of spilling and reloading a register holding the constant. This restriction is often true of addresses of TLS symbols for various targets.
This hook should return true if pool entries for constant x can be placed in an
object_blockstructure. mode is the mode of x.
The default version returns false for all constants.
This hook should return the DECL of a function that implements reciprocal of the builtin function with builtin function code fn, or
NULL_TREEif such a function is not available. tm_fn is true when fn is a code of a machine-dependent builtin function. When sqrt is true, additional optimizations that apply only to the reciprocal of a square root function are performed, and only reciprocals of
sqrtfunction are valid.
This hook should return the DECL of a function f that given an address addr as an argument returns a mask m that can be used to extract from two vectors the relevant data that resides in addr in case addr is not properly aligned.
The autovectorizer, when vectorizing a load operation from an address addr that may be unaligned, will generate two vector loads from the two aligned addresses around addr. It then generates a
REALIGN_LOADoperation to extract the relevant data from the two loaded vectors. The first two arguments to
REALIGN_LOAD, v1 and v2, are the two vectors, each of size VS, and the third argument, OFF, defines how the data will be extracted from these two vectors: if OFF is 0, then the returned vector is v2; otherwise, the returned vector is composed from the last VS-OFF elements of v1 concatenated to the first OFF elements of v2.
If this hook is defined, the autovectorizer will generate a call to f (using the DECL tree that this hook returns) and will use the return value of f as the argument OFF to
REALIGN_LOAD. Therefore, the mask m returned by f should comply with the semantics expected by
REALIGN_LOADdescribed above. If this hook is not defined, then addr will be used as the argument OFF to
REALIGN_LOAD, in which case the low log2(VS)-1 bits of addr will be considered.
This hook should return the DECL of a function f that implements widening multiplication of the even elements of two input vectors of type x.
If this hook is defined, the autovectorizer will use it along with the
TARGET_VECTORIZE_BUILTIN_MUL_WIDEN_ODDtarget hook when vectorizing widening multiplication in cases that the order of the results does not have to be preserved (e.g. used only by a reduction computation). Otherwise, the
widen_mult_hi/loidioms will be used.
This hook should return the DECL of a function f that implements widening multiplication of the odd elements of two input vectors of type x.
If this hook is defined, the autovectorizer will use it along with the
TARGET_VECTORIZE_BUILTIN_MUL_WIDEN_EVENtarget hook when vectorizing widening multiplication in cases that the order of the results does not have to be preserved (e.g. used only by a reduction computation). Otherwise, the
widen_mult_hi/loidioms will be used.
This hook should return the DECL of a function that implements conversion of the input vector of type type. If type is an integral type, the result of the conversion is a vector of floating-point type of the same size. If type is a floating-point type, the result of the conversion is a vector of integral type of the same size. code specifies how the conversion is to be applied (truncation, rounding, etc.).
If this hook is defined, the autovectorizer will use the
TARGET_VECTORIZE_BUILTIN_CONVERSIONtarget hook when vectorizing conversion. Otherwise, it will return
This hook should return the decl of a function that implements the vectorized variant of the builtin function with builtin function code code or
NULL_TREEif such a function is not available. The return type of the vectorized function shall be of vector type vec_type_out and the argument types should be vec_type_in.