2 Language Standards Supported by GCC
For each language compiled by GCC for which there is a standard, GCC attempts to follow one or more versions of that standard, possibly with some exceptions, and possibly with some extensions.
2.1 C language
The original ANSI C standard (X3.159-1989) was ratified in 1989 and published in 1990. This standard was ratified as an ISO standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1990) later in 1990. There were no technical differences between these publications, although the sections of the ANSI standard were renumbered and became clauses in the ISO standard. This standard, in both its forms, is commonly known as C89, or occasionally as C90, from the dates of ratification. The ANSI standard, but not the ISO standard, also came with a Rationale document. To select this standard in GCC, use one of the options -ansi, -std=c89 or -std=iso9899:1990; to obtain all the diagnostics required by the standard, you should also specify -pedantic (or -pedantic-errors if you want them to be errors rather than warnings). See Options Controlling C Dialect.
Errors in the 1990 ISO C standard were corrected in two Technical Corrigenda published in 1994 and 1996. GCC does not support the uncorrected version.
An amendment to the 1990 standard was published in 1995. This
amendment added digraphs and
__STDC_VERSION__ to the language,
but otherwise concerned the library. This amendment is commonly known
as AMD1; the amended standard is sometimes known as C94 or
C95. To select this standard in GCC, use the option
-std=iso9899:199409 (with, as for other standard versions,
-pedantic to receive all required diagnostics).
A new edition of the ISO C standard was published in 1999 as ISO/IEC 9899:1999, and is commonly known as C99. GCC has incomplete support for this standard version; see http://gcc.gnu.org/gcc-4.4/c99status.html for details. To select this standard, use -std=c99 or -std=iso9899:1999. (While in development, drafts of this standard version were referred to as C9X.)
Errors in the 1999 ISO C standard were corrected in three Technical Corrigenda published in 2001, 2004 and 2007. GCC does not support the uncorrected version.
By default, GCC provides some extensions to the C language that on rare occasions conflict with the C standard. See Extensions to the C Language Family. Use of the -std options listed above will disable these extensions where they conflict with the C standard version selected. You may also select an extended version of the C language explicitly with -std=gnu89 (for C89 with GNU extensions) or -std=gnu99 (for C99 with GNU extensions). The default, if no C language dialect options are given, is -std=gnu89; this will change to -std=gnu99 in some future release when the C99 support is complete. Some features that are part of the C99 standard are accepted as extensions in C89 mode.
The ISO C standard defines (in clause 4) two classes of conforming
implementation. A conforming hosted implementation supports the
whole standard including all the library facilities; a conforming
freestanding implementation is only required to provide certain
library facilities: those in
<stddef.h>; since AMD1, also those in
<iso646.h>; and in C99, also those in
<stdint.h>. In addition, complex types, added in C99, are not
required for freestanding implementations. The standard also defines
two environments for programs, a freestanding environment,
required of all implementations and which may not have library
facilities beyond those required of freestanding implementations,
where the handling of program startup and termination are
implementation-defined, and a hosted environment, which is not
required, in which all the library facilities are provided and startup
is through a function
int main (void) or
int main (int,
char *). An OS kernel would be a freestanding environment; a
program using the facilities of an operating system would normally be
in a hosted implementation.
GCC aims towards being usable as a conforming freestanding
implementation, or as the compiler for a conforming hosted
implementation. By default, it will act as the compiler for a hosted
presuming that when the names of ISO C functions are used, they have
the semantics defined in the standard. To make it act as a conforming
freestanding implementation for a freestanding environment, use the
option -ffreestanding; it will then define
0 and not make assumptions about the
meanings of function names from the standard library, with exceptions
noted below. To build an OS kernel, you may well still need to make
your own arrangements for linking and startup.
See Options Controlling C Dialect.
GCC does not provide the library facilities required only of hosted implementations, nor yet all the facilities required by C99 of freestanding implementations; to use the facilities of a hosted environment, you will need to find them elsewhere (for example, in the GNU C library). See Standard Libraries.
Most of the compiler support routines used by GCC are present in
libgcc, but there are a few exceptions. GCC requires the
freestanding environment provide
__builtin_trap is used, and the target does
not implement the
trap pattern, then GCC will emit a call
For references to Technical Corrigenda, Rationale documents and information concerning the history of C that is available online, see http://gcc.gnu.org/readings.html
2.2 C++ language
GCC supports the ISO C++ standard (1998) and contains experimental support for the upcoming ISO C++ standard (200x).
The original ISO C++ standard was published as the ISO standard (ISO/IEC
14882:1998) and amended by a Technical Corrigenda published in 2003
(ISO/IEC 14882:2003). These standards are referred to as C++98 and
C++03, respectively. GCC implements the majority of C++98 (
is a notable exception) and most of the changes in C++03. To select
this standard in GCC, use one of the options -ansi or
-std=c++98; to obtain all the diagnostics required by the
standard, you should also specify -pedantic (or
-pedantic-errors if you want them to be errors rather than
The ISO C++ committee is working on a new ISO C++ standard, dubbed C++0x, that is intended to be published by 2009. C++0x contains several changes to the C++ language, some of which have been implemented in an experimental C++0x mode in GCC. The C++0x mode in GCC tracks the draft working paper for the C++0x standard; the latest working paper is available on the ISO C++ committee's web site at http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/. For information regarding the C++0x features available in the experimental C++0x mode, see http://gcc.gnu.org/projects/cxx0x.html. To select this standard in GCC, use the option -std=c++0x; to obtain all the diagnostics required by the standard, you should also specify -pedantic (or -pedantic-errors if you want them to be errors rather than warnings).
By default, GCC provides some extensions to the C++ language; See Options Controlling C++ Dialect. Use of the -std option listed above will disable these extensions. You may also select an extended version of the C++ language explicitly with -std=gnu++98 (for C++98 with GNU extensions) or -std=gnu++0x (for C++0x with GNU extensions). The default, if no C++ language dialect options are given, is -std=gnu++98.
2.3 Objective-C and Objective-C++ languages
- http://developer.apple.com/documentation/Cocoa/Conceptual/ObjectiveC/ is a recent (and periodically updated) version;
- http://www.toodarkpark.org/computers/objc/ is an older example;
- http://www.gnustep.org and http://gcc.gnu.org/readings.html have additional useful information.
See GNAT Reference Manual (GNAT Reference Manual), for information on standard conformance and compatibility of the Ada compiler.
See Standards (The GNU Fortran Compiler), for details of standards supported by GNU Fortran.
See Compatibility with the Java Platform (GNU gcj), for details of compatibility between gcj and the Java Platform.