I2C Interface

Name

I2C Functions -- allow applications and other packages to access I2C devices

Synopsis

#include <cyg/io/i2c.h>
      

cyg_uint32 cyg_i2c_tx(const cyg_i2c_device* device, const cyg_uint8* tx_data, cyg_uint32 count);

cyg_uint32 cyg_i2c_rx(const cyg_i2c_device* device, cyg_uint8* rx_data, cyg_uint32 count);

void cyg_i2c_transaction_begin(const cyg_i2c_device* device);

cyg_bool cyg_i2c_transaction_begin_nb(const cyg_i2c_device* device);

cyg_uint32 cyg_i2c_transaction_tx(const cyg_i2c_device* device, cyg_bool send_start, const cyg_uint8* tx_data, cyg_uint32 count, cyg_bool send_stop);

cyg_uint32 cyg_i2c_transaction_rx(const cyg_i2c_device* device, cyg_bool send_start, cyg_uint8* rx_data, cyg_uint32 count, cyg_bool send_nack, cyg_bool send_stop);

void cyg_i2c_transaction_stop(const cyg_i2c_device* device);

void cyg_i2c_transaction_end(const cyg_i2c_device* device);

Description

All I2C functions take a pointer to a cyg_i2c_device structure as their first argument. These structures are usually provided by the platform HAL. They contain the information needed by the I2C bus driver to interact with the device, for example the device address.

An I2C transaction involves the following stages:

  1. Perform thread-level locking on the bus. Only one thread at a time is allowed to access an I2C bus. This eliminates the need to worry about locking at the bus driver level. If a platform involves multiple I2C buses then each one will have its own lock.

  2. Generate a start condition, send the address and direction bit, and wait for an acknowledgement from the addressed device.

  3. Either transmit data to or receive data from the addressed device.

  4. The previous two steps may be repeated several times, allowing data to move in both directions during a single transfer.

  5. Generate a stop condition, ending the current data transfer. It is now possible to start another data transfer while the bus is still locked, if desired.

  6. End the transaction by unlocking the bus, allowing other threads to access other devices on the bus.

The simple functions cyg_i2c_tx and cyg_i2c_rx perform all these steps in a single call, making them suitable for many I/O operations. The alternative transaction-oriented functions provide greater control when appropriate, for example if a repeated start is necessary for a bi-directional data transfer.

With the exception of cyg_i2c_transaction_begin_nb all the functions will block until completion. The tx routines will return 0 if the specified device does not respond to its address, or the number of bytes actually transferred. This may be less than the number requested if the device sends an early nack, for example because it has run out of buffer space. The rx routines will return 0 or the number of bytes received. Usually this will be the same as the count parameter. A slave device has no way of indicating to the master that no more data is available, so the rx operation cannot complete early.

I2C operations should always be performed at thread-level or during system initialization, and not inside an ISR or DSR. This greatly simplifies locking. Also a typical ISR or DSR should not perform a blocking operation such as an I2C transfer.

Simple Transfers

cyg_i2c_tx and cyg_i2c_rx can be used for simple data transfers. They both go through the following steps: lock the bus, generate the start condition, send the device address and the direction bit, either send or receive the data, generate the stop condition, and unlock the bus. At the end of a transfer the bus is back in its idle state, ready for the next transfer.

cyg_i2c_tx returns the number of bytes actually transmitted. This may be 0 if the device does not respond when its address is sent out. It may be less than the number of bytes requested if the device generates an early nack, typically because it has run out of buffer space.

cyg_i2c_rx returns 0 if the device does not respond when its address is sent out, or the number of bytes actually received. Usually this will be the number of bytes requested because an I2C slave device has no way of aborting an rx operation early.

Transactions

To allow multiple threads to access devices on the I2C some locking is required. This is encapsulated inside transactions. The cyg_i2c_tx and cyg_i2c_rx functions implicitly use such transactions, but the functionality is also available directly to application code. Amongst other things transactions can be used for more complicated interactions with I2C devices, in particular ones involving repeated starts.

cyg_i2c_transaction_begin must be used at the start of a transaction. This performs thread-level locking on the bus, blocking if it is currently in use by another thread.

cyg_i2c_transaction_begin_nb is a non-blocking variant, useful for threads which cannot afford to block for an indefinite period. If the bus is currently locked the function returns false immediately. If the bus is not locked then it acts as cyg_i2c_transaction_begin and returns true.

Once the bus has been locked it is possible to perform one or more data transfers by calling cyg_i2c_transaction_tx, cyg_i2c_transaction_rx and cyg_i2c_transaction_stop. Code should ensure that a stop condition has been generated by the end of a transaction.

Once the transaction is complete cyg_i2c_transaction_end should be called. This unlocks the bus, allowing other threads to perform I2C I/O to devices on the same bus.

As an example consider reading the registers in an FS6377 programmable clock generator. The first step is to write a byte 0 to the device, setting the current register to 0. Then a repeated start condition should be generated and it is possible to read the 16 byte-wide registers, starting with the current one. Typical code for this might look like:

    cyg_uint8  tx_data[1];
    cyg_uint8  rx_data[16];

    cyg_i2c_transaction_begin(&hal_alaia_i2c_fs6377);
    tx_data[0] = 0x00;
    cyg_i2c_transaction_tx(&hal_alaia_i2c_fs6377,
                           true, tx_data, 1, false);
    cyg_i2c_transaction_rx(&hal_alaia_i2c_fs6377,
                           true, rx_data, 16, true, true);
    cyg_i2c_transaction_end(&hal_alaia_i2c_fs6377);
    

Here hal_alaia_i2c_fs6377 is a cyg_i2c_device structure provided by the platform HAL. A transaction is begun, locking the bus. Then there is a transmit for a single byte. This transmit involves generating a start condition and sending the address and direction bit, but not a stop condition. Next there is a receive for 16 bytes. This also involves a start condition, which the device will interpret as a repeated start because it has not yet seen a stop. The start condition will be followed by the address and direction bit, and then the device will start transmitting the register contents. Once all 16 bytes have been received the rx routine will send a nack rather than an ack, halting the transfer, and then a stop condition is generated. Finally the transaction is ended, unlocking the bus.

The arguments to cyg_i2c_transaction_tx are as follows:

const cyg_i2c_device* device

This identifies the I2C device that should be used.

cyg_bool send_start

If true, generate a start condition and send the address and direction bit. If false, skip those steps and go straight to transmitting the actual data. The latter can be useful if the data to be transmitted is spread over several buffers. The first tx call will involve generating the start condition but subsequent tx calls can skip this and just continue from the previous one.

send_start must be true if the tx call is the first operation in a transaction, or if the previous call was an rx or stop.

const cyg_uint8* tx_data, cyg_uint32 count

These arguments specify the data to be transmitted to the device.

cyg_bool send_stop

If true, generate a stop condition at the end of the transmit. Usually this is done only if the transmit is the last operation in a transaction.

The arguments to cyg_i2c_transaction_rx are as follows:

const cyg_i2c_device* device

This identifies the I2C device that should be used.

cyg_bool send_start

If true, generate a start condition and send the address and direction bit. If false, skip those steps and go straight to receiving the actual data. The latter can be useful if the incoming data should be spread over several buffers. The first rx call will involve generating the start condition but subsequent rx calls can skip this and just continue from the previous one. Another use is for devices which can send variable length data, consisting of an initial length and then the actual data. The first rx will involve generating the start condition and reading the length, a subsequent rx will then just read the data.

send_start must be true if the rx call is the first operation in a transaction, if the previous call was a tx or stop, or if the previous call was an an rx and the send_nack flag was set.

cyg_uint8* rx_data, cyg_uint32 count

These arguments specify how much data should be received and where it should be placed.

cyg_bool send_nack

If true generate a nack instead of an ack for the last byte received. This causes the slave to end its transmit. The next operation should either involve a repeated start or a stop. send_nack should be set to false only if send_stop is also false, the next operation will be another rx, and that rx does not specify send_start.

cyg_bool send_stop

If true, generate a stop condition at the end of the transmit. Usually this is done only if the transmit is the last operation in a transaction.

The final transaction-oriented function is cyg_i2c_transaction_stop. This just generates a stop condition. It should be used if the previous operation was a tx or rx that, for some reason, did not set the send_stop flag. A stop condition must be generated before the transaction is ended.

Initialization

The generic package CYGPKG_IO_I2C arranges for all I2C bus devices to be initialized via a single prioritized C++ static constructor. This constructor will run early on during system startup, before any application code, with priority CYG_INIT_BUS_I2C. Other code should not try to access any of the I2C devices until after the buses have been initialized.

2017-02-09
Documentation license for this page: Open Publication License