Test Coverage

Name

CYGPKG_GCOV -- eCos Support for the gcov test coverage tool

Description

The GNU gcov tool provides test coverage support. After a test run it can be used to find code that was never actually executed. The testing conditions can then be adjusted for another test run to ensure that all the code really has been tested. The tool can also be used to find out how often each line of code was executed. That information can help application developers to determine where cpu time is being spent, and optimization effort can be focussed on critical parts of the code.

A typical fragment of gcov output looks something like this:

       80002:   60:  for (Run_Index = 1; Run_Index <= Number_Of_Runs; ++Run_Index)
	   -:	61:  {
	   -:	62:
       80000:   63:    Proc_5();
       80000:   64:    while (Int_1_Loc < Int_2_Loc)  /* loop body executed once */
	   -:	65:    {
       80000:   66:      Int_3_Loc = 5 * Int_1_Loc - Int_2_Loc;
       80000:   67:      Proc_7 (Int_1_Loc, Int_2_Loc, &Int_3_Loc);
       80000:   68:      Int_1_Loc += 1;
	   -:	69:    } /* while */
      240000:   70:    for (Ch_Index = 'A'; Ch_Index <= Ch_2_Glob; ++Ch_Index)
	   -:   71:                          /* loop body executed twice */
	   -:	72:    {
      160000:   73:      if (Enum_Loc == Func_1 (Ch_Index, 'C'))
	   -:	74:          /* then, not executed */
	   -:	75:        {
      ######:   76:        Proc_6 (Ident_1, &Enum_Loc);
      ######:   77:        strcpy (Str_2_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 3'RD STRING");
      ######:   78:        Int_2_Loc = Run_Index;
      ######:   79:        Int_Glob = Run_Index;
	   -:	80:        }
	   -:	81:    }
           -:   82:    …
           -:   83:  }
    

Each line show the execution count and line number. An execution count of -: means that there is no executable code at that line. In this example the main loop is executed 80000 times. The body of the inner for loop is executed more often, but the if condition never triggers so four lines of code have not been tested.

The gcov tool works in conjunction with the gcc compiler. Application code should be built with two additional compiler flags -fprofile-arcs and -ftest-coverage. The first option causes the compiler to generate additional code which counts the number of times each basic block is executed. The second option results in additional files with .gcno suffixes which allow gcov to map these basic blocks onto lines of source code. Older versions of the compiler used to generate files with .bb and .bbg suffixes instead.

The resulting executable can be run on the target hardware as usual. The basic block counting will initialize automatically and the counts will accumulate. If gcov is used for native development rather than for embedded targets then these counts will be written out to .gcda data files automatically when the program exits (older versions of the compiler used to generate files with .da suffixes). A typical embedded target will not have access to the host file system so a different approach must be used. The counts can be extracted from the target using either a gdb macro or by a tftp transfer, giving a single ecosgcov.out file with counts for the entire application. This file should then be processed with the ecosxda script to give count files for each application source file.

It is now possible to run gcov on each source file. The exact format of the various files varies with the compiler version so it is important to use the version of gcov that comes with the compiler.

$ m68k-elf-gcov dhrystone.c
 89.25% of 214 source lines executed in file dhrystone.c
Creating dhrystone.c.gcov.
#
    

gcov will read in the basic block counts from the generated .gcda file. These basic blocks are mapped onto the source code using the information in the .gcno files.

gcov provides various options, for example it can output summaries for each function. Full details of the available functionality can be found in the gcov section of the gcc documentation.

Building Applications for Test Coverage

To perform application test coverage the gcov package CYGPKG_GCOV must first be added to the eCos configuration. On the command line this can be achieved using:

$ ecosconfig add gcov
$ ecosconfig tree
$ make
    

Alternatively the same steps can be performed using the graphical configuration tool. The package only has two configuration options related to tftp transfers, described below.

In addition application code should be compiled with two additional options, -fprofile-arcs and -ftest-coverage. The first option causes the compiler to insert additional code for basic block counting, plus an initialization call to __gcov_init_func() which is provided by the eCos gcov package. The second option results in additional .gcno output files which gcov will need later. The target-side memory needed to store the basic block counts is allocated statically.

When code is compiled with optimization the compiler may rearrange some of the code, if that leads to better performance. Sometimes this causes the gcov output to be rather confusing. Compiling with -O0, thus disabling optimization, can help.

Extracting the Data

The basic block counts must be extracted from the target and saved to a file ecosgcov.out on the host. This package provides two ways of doing this: a gdb macro or tftp transfers. Using tftp is faster but requires a TCP/IP stack on the target. It also consumes some additional target-side resources, including an extra tftp daemon thread and its stack. The gdb macro can be used even when the eCos configuration does not include a TCP/IP stack. However it is much slower, typically taking several minutes to retrieve all the counts for a non-trivial application.

The gdb macro is called gcov_dump, and can be found in the file gcov.gdb in the host subdirectory of this package, and in the ECOS_INSTALL_DIR/etc subdirectory. A typical way of using this macro is:

(gdb) source <ECOS_INSTALL_DIR>;/etc/gcov.gdb
(gdb) gcov_dump
    

This macro can be used any time after the application has initialized, and will store the counts accumulated so far to the file ecosgcov.out in the current directory. The counts are not reset.

If the configuration includes a TCP/IP stack then the data can be extracted using tftp instead. There are two relevant configuration options. CYGPKG_GCOV_TFTPD controls whether or not tftp is supported. It is enabled by default if the configuration includes a TCP/IP stack, but can be disabled to save target-side resources. CYGNUM_GCOV_TFTPD_PORT controls the UDP port which will be used. This port cannot be shared with other tftp daemons. If neither application code nor any other package (for example the gprof profiling package) provides a tftp service then the default port can be used. Otherwise it will be necessary to assign unique ports to each daemon.

Using tftp requires some additional code in the application. Specifically the daemon cannot be started until the network is up and running, and that usually happens at the behest of application code rather than automatically. The following code fragment illustrates what is required:

#include <pkgconf/system.h>
#include <network.h>
#ifdef CYGPKG_GCOV
# include <pkgconf/gcov.h>
# include <cyg/profile/gcov.h>
#endif
…
int
main(int argc, char** argv)
{
    …
    init_all_network_interfaces();
#ifdef CYGPKG_GCOV_TFTPD
    gcov_start_tftpd();
#endif
    …
}
    

The data can then be retrieved using a standard tftp client. There are a number of such clients available with very different interfaces, but a typical session might look something like this:

$ tftp
tftp> connect 10.1.1.134
tftp> binary
tftp> get ecosgcov.out
Received 138740 bytes in 1.7 seconds
tftp> quit
    

The address 10.1.1.134 should be replaced with the target's IP address.

ecosxda

gcov expects separate .gcda files for each application source file compiled with -fprofile-arcs. However it would be inconvenient to extract each .gcda file via tftp or a gdb macro. Instead the data is first written to a single file ecosgcov.out. The ecosxda utility script should then be used to process ecosgcov.out and generate the .gcda files.

The ecosxda script can be found in the host subdirectory of this package. Since it is a simple Tcl script it does not need to be built or installed. If desired it can be copied to a suitable location on the user's PATH. Alternatively the subdirectory contains suitable configure and Makefile.in files, allowing the script to be installed automatically as part of the generic eCos host-side build system. The toplevel file README.host contains more information about this.

Typically ecosxda will be invoked with no arguments.

$ ecosxda
    

It will read in an ecosgcov.out file from the current directory and output or update the .gcda files appropriate for the application. If a given .gcda file already exists then by default ecosxda will read it in and merge the old and new counts, rather than write a new set. This allows data from several test runs to accumulate, giving more comprehensive test coverage. Merging the counts is only possible if the source file has not been recompiled, otherwise the old counts will be discarded to avoid contaminated results.

ecosxda takes a number of command line options.

-h, --help

Provide brief usage information.

-V, --version

Display the version of the ecosxda script being used.

-v, --verbose

Provide additional diagnostic output. Repeated uses increase the level of verbosity.

-n, --no-output

Do not actually create or modify any .gcda files. Typically this is used to find out whether any files would be replaced rather than merged, and it can also be used to validate the ecosgcov.out file.

-r, --replace

This forces ecosxda to ignore any existing counts in the .gcda files, rather than try to merge the existing and new counts. Typically it is used to discard the results from previous test runs.

In addition it is possible to specify the file containing the new counts, instead of the default ecosgcov.out. This may prove useful if several sets of results are extracted to different files during a single test run, to determine what code gets run at various stages. For example:

$ ecosxda -r stage2.out
    

Directories and eCos Test Coverage

In a simple build environment the source code, the .gcno files generated by the compiler, and the .gcda files output by ecosxda, will all reside in the same directory. That makes it easy for gcov to find the various files it needs. gcov will also generate its .gcov files in the same directory.

In more complicated build environments the source code may be kept completely separate from the build tree. eCos itself provides an example of this: the source code is held in a clean component repository, and builds happen in separate build trees. To use gcov in such an environment it is necessary to understand what files will be created where:

  1. The compiler will output the .gcno file in the same directory as the object file. For an eCos build tree this will be below the version directory of each package. For example, if the kernel source file sync/mutex.cxx is built with -ftest-coverage then the kernel/current/src/sync subdirectory in the build tree will contain the mutex.gcno files.

  2. The .gcda files will end up in the same directory as the .gcno files. The compiler puts the full path name in each object file, and this path is copied into the ecosgcov.out file and used by ecosxda. It is assumed that ecosgcov.out will be processed on the same machine that was used to compile the code.

  3. When gcov is invoked it can be given a full pathname for the source file. By default it assumes that the other files will be in the current directory, but a -o command line option can be used to override this.

  4. gcov will output its .gcov files in the current directory.

To perform test coverage of eCos itself, in addition to or instead of the application, it is necessary to rebuild eCos with the appropriate flags. This involves changing the configuration option CYGBLD_GLOBAL_CFLAGS to include -ftest-coverage and -fprofile-arcs, then performing a clean and a full make. The basic block counts can be extracted and processed with ecosxda as before, and the .gcno and .gcda files will all end up in the build tree. This test coverage data can then be processed in the build tree using, for example:

$ cd <build>
$ cd kernel/<version>
$ m68k-elf-gcov -o . <repo>/kernel/<version>/sync/mutex.cxx
…
 58.50% of 147 source lines executed in file <repo>/kernel/current/src/sync/mutex.cxx
Creating mutex.cxx.gcov.
    

Where <build> is the location of the build tree and <repo> is the location of the eCos component repository.

Additional Target-side Functions

The eCos gcov package provides a small number of additional target-side functions. Prototypes for these are provided in the header file <cyg/profile/gcov.h>.

…
int
main(int argc, char** argv)
{
    …
    init_all_network_interfaces();
#ifdef CYGPKG_GCOV_TFTPD
    gcov_start_tftpd();
#endif
    …
}
    

If the eCos configuration includes a TCP/IP stack and if a target-side tftp daemon will be used to extract the data from the target to the host then application code should call gcov_start_tftpd once the network is up. This cannot be done automatically by the gcov package itself since that package has no simple way of detecting when the network is ready.

extern void gcov_reset(void);
    

This function can be used to reset all basic block counts. If the application operates in a number of distinct stages then it may be useful to get coverage data for each stage, rather than a single set of results for the whole test run. It can also be used to get test coverage for a specific sequence of external inputs.

64-bit arithmetic is used for the basic block counts. Hence it should not be necessary to perform occasional resets to avoid counters overflowing.

To operate properly gcov_reset needs to disable interrupts for a while, so it should not be used in situations which require hard real-time performance.

extern void gcov_dump(void);
    

This is a utility routine which outputs some of the basic block information via diag_printf calls. It is intended primarily to help with debugging the gcov code itself.

In addition the <cyg/profile/gcov.h> header exports the data type gcov_module and a variable gcov_head which acts as the head of a linked list of gcov_module structures. This allows application code to access and manipulate the basic block data directly, if desired.

2017-02-09
Documentation license for this page: eCosPro License