The HAL Port

Name

HAL Port -- Implementation Details

Overview

This documentation explains how the eCos HAL specification has been mapped onto the Freescale TWR-K60N512 and TWR-K60D100M hardware, and should be read in conjunction with that specification. The CYGPKG_HAL_CORTEXM_KINETIS_TWR_K60N512 platform HAL package complements the Cortex-M architectural HAL and the Kinetis variant HAL. It provides functionality which is specific to the target boards.

Startup

Following a hard or soft reset the HAL will initialize or reinitialize many of the on-chip peripherals. There is an exception for RAM startup applications which depend on a ROM monitor for certain services, and for the platform JTAG startup where the host debugger configuration is responsible for initialising the DDRMC world for the external SDRAM used to hold the application being loaded.

For ROM startup, the HAL will perform additional initialization, programming the various internal registers including the PLL, peripheral clocks and GPIO pins. The details of the early hardware startup may be found in the src/twr_k60n512_misc.c in both hal_system_init and hal_platform_init.

Memory Map

The platform HAL package provides the memory layout information needed to generate the linker script. The key memory locations are as follows:

Internal RAM

This is located at address 0x1FFF0000 of the memory space, and is 128KiB in size. The eCos VSR table occupies the bottom 512-bytes. The virtual vector table starts at 0x1FFF0200 and extends to 0x20000300. For ROM, and JTAG startups, the top CYGNUM_HAL_COMMON_INTERRUPTS_STACK_SIZE bytes are reserved for the interrupt stack. The remainder of internal RAM is available for use by applications.

Internal FLASH

This is located at address 0x00000000 of the memory space. This region is 1MiB in size. ROM applications are by default configured to run from this memory.

On-Chip Peripherals

These are accessible from locations 0x40000000 and 0xE0000000 upwards. Descriptions of the contents can be found in the Kinetis User Manual.

Linker Scripts

The platform linker scripts define the following symbols:

hal_vsr_table

This defines the location of the VSR table. This is set to 0x1FFF0000 for all startup types, and space for 128 entries allocated, though the K60 sub-family in use may use less entries.

hal_virtual_vector_table

This defines the location of the virtual vector table used to communicate between an ROM monitor and an eCos application. This is allocated right after the VSR table, at 0x20000200.

hal_interrupt_stack

This defines the location of the interrupt stack. For all startup types this is allocated to the top of internal SRAM, 0x20010000.

hal_startup_stack

This defines the location of the startup stack. For all startup types it is initially allocated at the half-way point of the interrupt stack.

Diagnostic LEDs

Four LEDs are fitted on the board for diagnostic purposes:

Platform HAL manifestColourBoard Label
CYGHWR_IO_KINETIS_PIN_LED1OrangeE1
CYGHWR_IO_KINETIS_PIN_LED2YellowE2
CYGHWR_IO_KINETIS_PIN_LED3GreenE3
CYGHWR_IO_KINETIS_PIN_LED4BlueE4

The platform HAL header file at <cyg/hal/plf_io.h> defines the following convenience function to allow the LEDs to be set:

extern void hal_twr_k60n512_led(char c);
    

The lowest 4-bits of the argument c correspond to each of the 4 LEDs (with LED1 as the least significant bit).

The platform HAL will automatically light all of the LEDs when the platform initialisation is complete, however the LEDs are free for application use.

Real-time Characterization

The tm_basic kernel test gives statistics gathered about the real-time characterization and performance of the kernel. The sample output is shown here for information. The test was built for the variant ROM startup with optimization flag -O3.

INFO: <code from 0x00000410 -> 0x000181dc, CRC 0356>
             Startup, main thrd : stack used   112 size  1536
             Startup : Idlethread stack used    84 size  1280

eCos Kernel Timings
Notes: all times are in microseconds (.000001) unless otherwise stated

Reading the hardware clock takes 0 'ticks' overhead
... this value will be factored out of all other measurements
Clock interrupt took    8.00 microseconds (8 raw clock ticks)

Testing parameters:
   Clock samples:            32
   Threads:                   6
   Thread switches:         128
   Mutexes:                  32
   Mailboxes:                32
   Semaphores:               32
   Scheduler operations:    128
   Counters:                 32
   Flags:                    32
   Alarms:                   32
   Stack Size:             1088


                                 Confidence
     Ave     Min     Max     Var  Ave  Min  Function
  ======  ======  ======  ====== ========== ========
    7.17    7.00    8.00    0.28   83%  83% Create thread
    1.33    1.00    2.00    0.44   66%  66% Yield thread [all suspended]
    1.83    1.00    2.00    0.28   83%  16% Suspend [suspended] thread
    2.00    2.00    2.00    0.00  100% 100% Resume thread
    3.33    3.00    4.00    0.44   66%  66% Set priority
    0.33    0.00    1.00    0.44   66%  66% Get priority
    5.50    5.00    6.00    0.50  100%  50% Kill [suspended] thread
    1.33    1.00    2.00    0.44   66%  66% Yield [no other] thread
    3.00    3.00    3.00    0.00  100% 100% Resume [suspended low prio] thread
    2.00    2.00    2.00    0.00  100% 100% Resume [runnable low prio] thread
    2.67    2.00    3.00    0.44   66%  33% Suspend [runnable] thread
    2.00    2.00    2.00    0.00  100% 100% Yield [only low prio] thread
    1.50    1.00    2.00    0.50  100%  50% Suspend [runnable->not runnable]
    5.33    5.00    6.00    0.44   66%  66% Kill [runnable] thread
    4.33    4.00    5.00    0.44   66%  66% Destroy [dead] thread
    8.33    8.00    9.00    0.44   66%  66% Destroy [runnable] thread
   10.83   10.00   12.00    0.56   50%  33% Resume [high priority] thread
    3.54    3.00    5.00    0.51   52%  46% Thread switch

    0.47    0.00    1.00    0.50   53%  53% Scheduler lock
    1.30    1.00    2.00    0.42   70%  70% Scheduler unlock [0 threads]
    1.34    1.00    2.00    0.45   66%  66% Scheduler unlock [1 suspended]
    1.28    1.00    2.00    0.40   71%  71% Scheduler unlock [many suspended]
    1.30    1.00    2.00    0.42   70%  70% Scheduler unlock [many low prio]

    0.50    0.00    1.00    0.50  100%  50% Init mutex
    2.34    2.00    3.00    0.45   65%  65% Lock [unlocked] mutex
    2.44    2.00    3.00    0.49   56%  56% Unlock [locked] mutex
    1.88    1.00    2.00    0.22   87%  12% Trylock [unlocked] mutex
    1.69    1.00    2.00    0.43   68%  31% Trylock [locked] mutex
    0.44    0.00    1.00    0.49   56%  56% Destroy mutex
   12.00   12.00   12.00    0.00  100% 100% Unlock/Lock mutex

    0.56    0.00    1.00    0.49   56%  43% Create mbox
    0.28    0.00    1.00    0.40   71%  71% Peek [empty] mbox
    2.53    2.00    3.00    0.50   53%  46% Put [first] mbox
    0.28    0.00    1.00    0.40   71%  71% Peek [1 msg] mbox
    2.69    2.00    3.00    0.43   68%  31% Put [second] mbox
    0.22    0.00    1.00    0.34   78%  78% Peek [2 msgs] mbox
    2.31    2.00    3.00    0.43   68%  68% Get [first] mbox
    2.28    2.00    3.00    0.40   71%  71% Get [second] mbox
    1.88    1.00    2.00    0.22   87%  12% Tryput [first] mbox
    1.72    1.00    2.00    0.40   71%  28% Peek item [non-empty] mbox
    1.69    1.00    2.00    0.43   68%  31% Tryget [non-empty] mbox
    1.53    1.00    2.00    0.50   53%  46% Peek item [empty] mbox
    1.94    1.00    2.00    0.12   93%   6% Tryget [empty] mbox
    0.31    0.00    1.00    0.43   68%  68% Waiting to get mbox
    0.31    0.00    1.00    0.43   68%  68% Waiting to put mbox
    0.44    0.00    1.00    0.49   56%  56% Delete mbox
    8.00    8.00    8.00    0.00  100% 100% Put/Get mbox

    0.28    0.00    1.00    0.40   71%  71% Init semaphore
    1.63    1.00    2.00    0.47   62%  37% Post [0] semaphore
    2.00    2.00    2.00    0.00  100% 100% Wait [1] semaphore
    1.69    1.00    2.00    0.43   68%  31% Trywait [0] semaphore
    2.00    2.00    2.00    0.00  100% 100% Trywait [1] semaphore
    0.44    0.00    1.00    0.49   56%  56% Peek semaphore
    0.38    0.00    1.00    0.47   62%  62% Destroy semaphore
    7.00    7.00    7.00    0.00  100% 100% Post/Wait semaphore

    0.72    0.00    1.00    0.40   71%  28% Create counter
    0.50    0.00    1.00    0.50  100%  50% Get counter value
    0.31    0.00    1.00    0.43   68%  68% Set counter value
    2.50    2.00    3.00    0.50  100%  50% Tick counter
    0.34    0.00    1.00    0.45   65%  65% Delete counter

    0.31    0.00    1.00    0.43   68%  68% Init flag
    2.00    2.00    2.00    0.00  100% 100% Destroy flag
    1.25    1.00    2.00    0.38   75%  75% Mask bits in flag
    2.00    2.00    2.00    0.00  100% 100% Set bits in flag [no waiters]
    3.00    3.00    3.00    0.00  100% 100% Wait for flag [AND]
    2.72    2.00    3.00    0.40   71%  28% Wait for flag [OR]
    2.88    2.00    3.00    0.22   87%  12% Wait for flag [AND/CLR]
    2.47    2.00    3.00    0.50   53%  53% Wait for flag [OR/CLR]
    0.38    0.00    1.00    0.47   62%  62% Peek on flag

    0.94    0.00    1.00    0.12   93%   6% Create alarm
    2.91    2.00    3.00    0.17   90%   9% Initialize alarm
    1.72    1.00    2.00    0.40   71%  28% Disable alarm
    2.78    2.00    3.00    0.34   78%  21% Enable alarm
    1.91    1.00    2.00    0.17   90%   9% Delete alarm
    2.66    2.00    3.00    0.45   65%  34% Tick counter [1 alarm]
    9.50    9.00   10.00    0.50  100%  50% Tick counter [many alarms]
    4.22    4.00    5.00    0.34   78%  78% Tick & fire counter [1 alarm]
   39.09   39.00   40.00    0.17   90%  90% Tick & fire counters [>1 together]
   11.00   11.00   11.00    0.00  100% 100% Tick & fire counters [>1 separately]
    7.00    7.00    7.00    0.00  100% 100% Alarm latency [0 threads]
    5.83    5.00    7.00    0.31   79%  18% Alarm latency [2 threads]
    6.01    5.00    7.00    0.64   36%  31% Alarm latency [many threads]
   12.02   12.00   14.00    0.03   99%  99% Alarm -> thread resume latency

     236     236     236                    Worker thread stack used (stack size 1088)
            All done, main thrd : stack used   760 size  1536
            All done : Idlethread stack used   188 size  1280

Timing complete - 27870 ms total

PASS:<Basic timing OK>
EXIT:<done>
   
2017-02-09
Documentation license for this page: eCosPro License